تعیین فرمهای شیمیایی فلز نیکل در خاک مزارع برنج اطراف شهرک صنعتی آمل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه تربیت مدرس،

2 دانشیار دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

خاک، کارکردهای زیادی به‌ویژه برای تولید غذا دارد. فلزات سنگین در محیط‌زیست قابل تجزیه نیستند و        می توانند اثرات طولانی‌مدتی را روی وی‍‍ژگی­های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژیکی خاک­ و به تبع آن حاصلخیزی و   تولید­پذیری خاک بگذارند. غلظت کل فلزات سنگین در خاک­ها نشان دهنده دسترسی زیستی یا غلظت قابل حل این فلزات در خاک نیست، بلکه فرم­های شیمیایی فلزات، نقش مهمی در قابلیت انحلال و پتانسیل دسترسی زیستی آن‌ها در خاک­ ایفا می­کنند. در این پژوهش با استفاده از تکنیک استخراج ترتیبی BCR اصلاحی، فرم‌های مختلف فلز نیکل در خاک مزارع برنج اطراف شهرک صنعتی آمل تعیین شدند. آنالیز نمونه‌ها با استفاده از دستگاه جذب اتمی شعله‌ای صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که فرم باقی‌مانده و قابل حل در اسید-تبادلی-کربنات به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین (02/1±14/23 و 38/0±40/4) میزان را تشکیل می‌دهند. همچنین تحرک، متوسط و میزان آلودگی پایین است. بنابراین احتمال آلودگی این فلز در منطقه پایین است

کلیدواژه‌ها


- زرین کفش، م.، (1372) "خاکشناسی کاربردی ارزیابی و مورفولوژی و تجزیه کمی خاک- آب- گیاه"، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، 342 ص

 

- Adamo, P., Arienzo, M., Bianco, M.R., Terribile, F., Violante, P., (2002) “Heavy metal contamination of the soils used for stocking raw”, Materials in the former ILVA iron–steel industrial plant of Bagnoli (southern Italy), The Scie of the Total Environ, 295 :17–34.

 

- Alloway, B.J. (1995) “Heavy Metals in Soils”, 2nd edn, 368 pp., Blackie and Son Ltd., London, UK.

 

- Amiard, J.C., Geffard, A., Amiard-Triquet, C., Crouzet, C. (2007) “Relationship between the lability of sediment-bound metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) and their bioaccumulation in benthic invertebrates”, Estuar, Coast and Shelf Scie, 72:511-521.

 

- Álvarez, E.A., Monchón, M.C., Sánchez, J.C.J., Rodríguez, M.T. (2002) “Heavy metal extractable forms in sludge from waste water treatment plants”, Chemosphere, 47: 765-775.

 

- Alvarez, J.M., Lopez-Valdivia, L.M, Novillo, J, Obrador, A, Rico, M.I. (2006) “Comparison of EDTA and sequential extraction tests for Phytoavailability prediction of manganese and zinc in Agricultural alkaline soils”, Geoderma, 132: 450-463.

 

- Arakel, A Hongjun, T., (1992) “Heavy metal geochemistry and dispersion pattern in flood plain area, Bribane, Australia”, Environ Geol and Water Scie, 20: 219–231.

 

- Arain, M.B., Kazi, T.G., Jamali, M.K., Jalbani, N., Afridi, H.I., Baig, J.A. (2008) “Speciation of heavy metals in sediment by conventional. Ultrasound and microwave assisted single extraction methods: a comparison with modified sequential extraction procedure”, J of Hazard Mater, 154: 998–1006.

 

- Banat, K.M., Howari, F.M., Tomah, M.M. (2007) “Chemical Fractionation and Heavy Metal Distribution in Agricultural Soils”, North of Jordan Valley, Soil & Sedi Contam, 16:89–107.

 

- Bhattacharyya, P., Tripathy, S., Chakrabarti, K., Chakraborty, A., Banik, P. (2008) “Fractionation and bioavailability of metals and their impacts on microbial properties in sewage irrigated soil”, Chemosphere, 72: 543–550.

 

- Ben Achiba, W., Lakhdar, A., Gabteni, N., Du Laing G., Verloo, M., Boeckx, P., Van Cleemput, O., Jedidi, N., Gallali, T., (2010) “Accumulation and fractionation of trace metals in a Tunisian calcareous soil amended with farmyard manure and

Municipal  solid  waste  compost”, J  of  Hazard

Mater, 176: 99–108.

 

- Cappuyns, V., Swennen, R., Niclaes M. (2007) “Application of the BCR sequential extraction scheme to dredged pond sediments contaminated by Pb–Zn mining: A combined geochemical and mineralogical approach”, J of Geochem Explor, 93: 78–90.

 

- Chang, C.Y., Chiang, H.L., Su, Z.J., Wang, C.F. (2005) “A sequential sxtraction method measures the toxic metal contentin fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator”, J of the Chine Chemi Soci, 52: 921-926.

 

- Doelsch, E., VandeKerchove, V., Saint Macary, H. (2006) “Heavy metal contentin soils of Re´union (Indian Ocean)”, Geoderma, 134:119–134.

 

- Fedotov, P.S., Fitz, W.J., Wennrich, R., Morgenstern, P., Wenzel, W.W. (2005) “Fractionation of arsenic in soil and sludge samples: continuous-flow extraction using rotating coiled columns versus batch sequential extraction”, Anal Chimi Acta, 538: 93-98.

 

- Ge, Y., Murray, P., Hendershot, W.H. (2000) “Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in urban soils”, J of Environ Pollut, 107:137-144.

 

- Guo, X.Y., Zuo, Y.B., Wang, B.R., Li, J.M., Ma, Y.B. (2010) “Toxicity and accumulation of copper and nickel in maize plants cropped on calcareous and acidic field soils”, Plant & Soil, 333:365–373.

 

- Hang, X., Wang, H., Zhou, J., Ma, C., Du, C., Chen, X. (2009) “Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangtze River Delta”, J of Environ Pollut, 157: 2542–2549.

 

- Jamali, M.K., Kazi, T.G., Afridi, H.I., Arain, M.B., Jalbani, N., Remon, A.R. (2007) “SpEciation of heavy metals in untreated domestic wastewater sludge by time saving BCR sequential extraction method”, J of  Environ Scie and Health Part A. 42: 649–659.

 

- Kabata-Pendias, A, Pendias, H. (2001) “Trace elements in soils and plants”, CRC, Boca Raton.

 

- Kasassi, A., Rakimbei, P., Karagiannidis, A., Zabaniotou, A., Tsiouvaras, K., Nastis, A., Tzafeiropoulou, K. (2008) “Soil contamination by heavy metals: Measurements from A closed unlined landfill”, Bioresource Technol, 99: 8578–8584.

- Long, Y.Y., Hu, L.F., Fang, C.R., Wu, Y.Y., Shen, D.S. (2009) “An evaluation of the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure to assess the Potential mobility of copper and zinc in MSW”, Microchem J. 1-5.

- Ma, L.Q, Rao, GN. (1997) “Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in contaminated soils”, J of Environ Qual, 26: 259–264.

 

- Margui, E., Salvadó, V., Queralt, I., Hidalgo, M. (2004) “Comparison of three-stage sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching tests to evaluate metal mobility in mining wastes”, Anal Chimi Acta. 524: 151–159.

 

- McBride, M.B., Richards, B.K., Steenhuis, T. (2004) “Bioavailability and crop uptake of trace elements in soil columns amended with sewage sludge products”, Plant and Soil, 262: 71–84.

 

- Nemati, K., AbuBakar, N.K., Sobhanzadeh, E., Abas, M.R. (2009) “A modification of the BCR sequential extraction procedure to investigate the potential Mobility of copper and zinc in shrimp aquaculture sludge”, Microchem J, 92:165–169.

 

- Nemati, K., AbuBakar, N.K., Abas, M.R. (2009) “Investigation of heavy metals mobility in shrimp aquaculture sludge-Comparison of two sequential extraction procedures”, Microchem J, 91: 227–231.

 

- Obrador, A., Alvarez, J.M., Lopez-Valdivia, L.M., Gonzalez, D., Novillo, J., Rico, M.I. (2007) “Relationships of soil properties with Mn and Zn distributionin acidic soil sand their by a barley crop”, Geoderma, 137: 432–443.

 

- Pénilla, S., Bordas, F., Bollinger, J.C. (2005) “Sequential heavy metals extraction from polluted solids: Influence of sulfate overconcentration”, J of Colloid and Interface Scie, 292: 20–28.

 

- Pinel, F., LEclerc-Cessac, E., Staunton, S. (2003) “Relative contributions of soil chemistry, plant physiology and rhizosphere induced changes inspeciation on Ni accumulation in plant shoots”, Plant and Soil, 255: 619–629.

 

- Prokop, Z., Cupr, P., Zlevorova-Zlamalikova, V., Komarek, J., Dusek, L., Holoubek, I., (2003) “Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effEcts of cadmium in soil samples”, Environ Res. 91:119–126.

-Pueyo, M., Mateu, J., Rigol, A., Vidal. M., Lopez-Sanchez, J.F., Rauret, G., (2008) “Use of the

modified BCR three-stepsequential extraction procedure For the study of trace element dynamics in contaminated soils”, J of Environ Pollut, 152:330-341.

 

- Rabenhorst, M.C, Foss, J.E, Fanning, D.S. (1982) “Genesis of Maryland soils formed from serpentinite”, Soil Sci Soci of America J, 46: 607–616.  

 

- Rajaie, M., Karimian, N., Yasrebi, J. (2008) “Nickel transformation in two calcareous soil textural classes as affEcted by applied nickel sulfate. Geoderma”, 144: 344–351.

- Sarfaraz, M., Mehdi, S.M., Hassan, G., Abbas, S.T. (2007) “Metal Contamination in Nullah Dek Water and Accumulation in Rice”, Pedosphere. 17: 130-136.

 

- Seregin, I.V, Kozhevnikova, A.D. (2006) “Physiological role of Nickel and its toxic effects on higher plants”, J of Plant Physiol, 53:257–277.

 

- Singh, A.K., Hansian, S.I., Banerjee, D.K. (1999) “Grain size and geochemical partitioning of heavy metals in sediment of the Damodar River”, India, Environ Geol. 39: 90–98.

 

- Sharma, R.K., Agrawal. M., Marshall, F. (2007) “Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi”, India. Ecotoxicol and Environ Safe, 66: 258–266.

 

- Shober, A.L. (2007) “Chemical fractionation of trace elements in biosolid-amended soils and correlation with trace elements in crop tissue”, Communic in Soil Scie and Plant Anal, 38:1029–1046.

 

- Srinivasa, Gowd S., Govil, P.K. (2007) “Distribution of heavy metals in surface water of Ranipet industrial area in Tamil Nadu”, India, Environ Monit Assess. 136:197–207.

 

- Su, D.C., Wong, J.W.C. (2003) “Chemical speciation and phytoavailability of Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd in soil amended with fly ash stabilized sewage sludge”, Environ Inter, 29: 895-900.

 

- Tokalioglu, S., Kartal. S. (2003) “Relationship

Between vegetable metal and soil-extractable metal contents  by  the  BCR   sequential   extraction

 

 

procedure: chemometrical interpretation of the data”, Environ Anal Chemi. 83: 935–952.

 

- Tokalıoglu, S., Kartal. S. (2005) “Comparison of metal fractionation results obtained from single and BCR sequential extractions”, Bull Environ Contam and Toxicol, 75:180–188.

 

- Umoren I.U., Udousoro I.I. (2009) “Fractionation of Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni in roadside soils of Uyo, Niger Delta Region: Nigeria using the optimized BCR sequential Extraction technique”, Environmentalist, 29: 280–286.

 

- Wang W.S., Shan X.Q., Wen B., Zhang S.Z. (2003) “Relationship between the extractable metals from soils and metals taken up by maize roots and shoots”, Chemosphere, 53: 523–530.

 

- Wong S.C., Li X.D., Zhang G., Qi S.H., Min Y.S. (2002) “Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta”, South China, J of Environ Pollut, 119: 33–44.

 

- Yan-Feng Z., Xue-Zheng S., Biao H., Dong-Sheng Y., Hong-Jie W., Wei-Xia S., Oboern I., Blomback K. (2007) “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils of an Industry-Based Peri-Urban Area  in Wuxi”, China, Pedosphere. 17: 44-51.

 

- Yu H., Wang J., Fang W., Yuan J., Yang Z. (2006) “Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution safe cultivars o rice”, The Scie of the Total Environ, 370:302–309.

 

- Zemberyova M., Bartekov J., Hagarova I. (2006) “The utilization of modified BCR three-step sequential extraction Procedure for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in Soil reference materials of different origins”, Talanta, 70: 973–978.

 

- Zeng F., Mao Y., Cheng W., Wu F., Zhang G. (2008) “Genotypic and environmental variation in chromium”, Cadmium and lead concentrations in rice, J of Environ Pollut, 153: 309-314.

 

- Zhao B., Maeda M., Zhang J., Zhu A., Ozaki Y. (2006) “Accumulation and chemical fractionation of heavy metals in Andisols after a different”,        6-year fertilization management, Environ Scie & Pollut Res,13: 90 – 97.